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注塑模具设计的要求有哪些?

来源:http://www.sdlqmj.com 日期:2020-11-23 发布人:liqiang 浏览次数:
注塑模的特点由原材料的特性决定,主要有两点:一是注射时塑料熔体的充模流动特性,二是模腔内塑料冷却固化时的收缩行位,这两点决定了注塑模的特殊性和注塑模具设计难度。因此,在注塑模具设计过程中需要考虑的问题如下。
The characteristics of injection mold are determined by the characteristics of raw materials, which are mainly two points: the first is the filling flow characteristics of plastic melt during injection, the other is the shrinkage position of the plastic in the mold cavity when it is cooled and solidified, which determines the particularity of the injection mold and the difficulty of the design of the injection mold. Therefore, the following problems need to be considered in the process of injection mold design.
1,深入分析塑料件结构及其技术要求。塑料件的结构决定了注塑模结构的复杂程度,塑料件的技术要求(尺寸精度,表面粗糙度等)决定了注塑模制造及成型工艺的难易,因此对于对于不符合塑料注塑成型的特殊要求,不合理的结构形状等,均应该提出注塑件的改进设计方案,否则会增加注塑模具设计与制造及注塑成型工艺的难度。
1. Analyze the structure and technical requirements of plastic parts in depth. The structure of plastic parts determines the complexity of injection mold structure. The technical requirements (dimension accuracy, surface roughness, etc.) of plastic parts determine the difficulty of injection mold manufacturing and molding process. Therefore, for the special requirements of plastic injection molding and unreasonable structural shape, the improvement design scheme of injection molding parts should be proposed, otherwise, the design of injection molding mold will be increased With manufacturing and injection molding process difficulty.
2,熟悉注塑机的技术规格。注塑机的技术规格制约着注塑模的尺寸和所能成型的注塑产品的范围。
2. Familiar with the technical specifications of injection molding machine. The technical specifications of injection molding machine restrict the size of injection molding mold and the range of injection molding products.
3,了解塑料的加工性能和工艺性能。包括塑料熔体的流动行位,熔体所能达到的较大的流动距离比:分析流道和型腔各处的流动阻力,模腔内原有空气的排出,塑料在注塑模内可能发生的结晶,取向及其导致的内应力,塑料的冷却收缩和补偿问题,塑料对注塑模具温度的要求等。
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3. Understand the processing and process properties of plastics. It includes the flow position of plastic melt, the larger flow distance ratio that the melt can achieve: analysis of flow resistance in the flow channel and cavity, the discharge of the original air in the mold cavity, the possible crystallization of plastic in the injection mold, orientation and internal stress, the cooling shrinkage and compensation of plastic, and the requirements of plastic on the temperature of injection mold, etc.
由于塑料熔体属于黏弹体,熔体流动时黏度随剪切应力,剪切速率而变化,流动过程中大分子沿流动方向产生定向,模腔充满后,熔体被部分压缩,冷却固化过程塑料的收缩非常复杂,模腔内各部位,各方向塑料收缩率不同,不同种类,牌号的塑料收缩率有很大差异,同一牌号的树脂或塑料在加工时,因配方不同,其充模流动性及收缩率也不同。基于上述特点,注塑模具设要充分了解所加工的塑料原材料的特性,使设计的注塑模合理使用,并在设计过程中有效地利用塑料的特性。
Because the plastic melt belongs to viscoelastic body, the viscosity changes with shear stress and shear rate during the melt flow. During the flow process, macromolecules will be oriented along the flow direction. After the cavity is filled, the melt is partially compressed, and the shrinkage of plastic during cooling and curing is very complex. The shrinkage rate of plastic in each part of the mold cavity is different, different types and brands of plastic shrinkage rate are very different Different, the fluidity and shrinkage of the filling die are different for different formulation when processing the same resin or plastic. Based on the above characteristics, the characteristics of the raw materials of the plastic processed should be fully understood in the design of injection molding, so that the injection mold can be used reasonably and the characteristics of plastics can be effectively used in the design process.

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