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注塑模具成型零件材料选用的要求!!

来源:http://www.sdlqmj.com 日期:2019-06-15 发布人:admin 浏览次数:
模具材料的选用在模具设计和制造中是一个比较重要的问题,直接影响到模具的制造工艺、模具的使用寿命、塑件的成型质量和模具的加工成本等一系列方面。济南注塑模具厂家现根据塑料成型模具使用条件、加工方法的不同,将塑料模具用钢的基本性能要求大致归纳如下:
The selection of die materials is an important issue in die design and manufacturing, which directly affects the manufacturing process, service life of the die, forming quality of the plastic parts and processing cost of the die. Jinan injection mould manufacturer has summarized the basic performance requirements of steel for plastic mould roughly as follows according to the different use conditions and processing methods of plastic mould.
(1)良好的机械加工性能
(1) Good machinability
要选用易于切削,且在加工后能得到高精度零件的钢种。为此,以中碳钢和中碳合金钢常用,这对大型模具尤其重要。对需要电火花加工的零件,还要求该钢种的烧伤硬化层较薄。
The steel grade which is easy to cut and can get high precision parts after processing should be selected. For this reason, medium carbon steel and medium carbon alloy steel are most commonly used, which is particularly important for large-scale dies. For parts requiring EDM, thin burn hardening layer of the steel is also required.
(2)良好的热稳定性
(2) Good thermal stability
塑料注射模的零件形状往往比较复杂,淬火后难以加工,因此应尽量选用具有良好的热稳定性的材料,使得模具成型零件经热处理后线膨胀系数小,热处理变形小,温度差异引起的尺寸变化率小,金相组织和模具尺寸稳定,可减少或不再进行加工,从而保证模具尺寸精度和表面粗糙度要求。
Plastic injection mold parts are often complex in shape and difficult to process after quenching. Therefore, materials with good thermal stability should be selected as far as possible, so that the linear expansion coefficient of the mold parts after heat treatment is small, the heat treatment deformation is small, the size change rate caused by temperature difference is small, the metallographic structure and the size of the mold are stable, so that the mold ruler can be reduced or no longer processed, so as to ensure the mold ruler. Inch accuracy and surface roughness requirements.
(3)足够的表面硬度和耐磨性
(3) Adequate surface hardness and wear resistance
塑料模的硬度通常在50~60 HRC 以下,经过热处理的模具应有足够的表面硬度,以保证模具具有足够的刚度。模具在工作中由于塑料的填充和流动要承受较大的压应力和摩擦力,要求模具保持形状的精度和尺寸精度的稳定性,保证模具有足够的使用寿命。模具的耐磨性取决于钢材的化学成分和热处理硬度,因此提高模具的硬度有利于提高其耐磨性。
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The hardness of plastic moulds is usually below 50 ~ 60 HRC. The heat treated moulds should have sufficient surface hardness to ensure that the moulds have sufficient stiffness. Because the filling and flowing of plastics must bear large compressive stress and frictional force in the work of the die, it is required to keep the shape accuracy and dimensional accuracy of the die stable, and ensure that the die has sufficient service life. The wear resistance of the die depends on the chemical composition of the steel and the hardness of heat treatment, so improving the hardness of the die is beneficial to improving its wear resistance.
(4) 优良的抛光性能
(4) Excellent polishing performance
高品质的塑料制品,要求型腔表面的粗糙度值小。因此,注塑模成型零件工作表面多需要抛光到镜面,Ra≤0.05μm,需要钢材硬度35~40 HRC 为宜,表面过硬会使抛光困难。为此,选用的钢材要求材料杂质少,显微组织应均匀致密,无纤维方向性,抛光时不应出现麻点或桔皮状缺陷。
For high quality plastic products, the surface roughness of the cavity is required to be small. Therefore, the working surface of injection moulding parts needs polishing to the mirror, Ra < 0.05 um, steel hardness 35 ~ 40 HRC is appropriate, too hard surface will make polishing difficult. Therefore, the selected steel requires less impurities, uniform and compact microstructures, no fiber orientation, and no pitting or orange peel defects in polishing.
(5)耐腐蚀性能
(5) Corrosion resistance
对有些塑料品种,如聚氯乙烯和阻燃型塑料,必须考虑选用有耐腐蚀性能的钢种。
For some kinds of plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride and flame retardant plastics, corrosion resistant steel must be considered.
此外,在选择材料时还须考虑防止擦伤与胶合,如两表面存在相对运动的情况,则尽量避免选择组织结构相同的材料,特殊状况下可将一面施镀或氮化,使两面具有不同的表面结构。
In addition, when selecting materials, we should also consider preventing scratch and bonding. If there is relative movement between the two surfaces, we should avoid selecting materials with the same structure as far as possible. Under special conditions, one side can be plated or nitrided to make the two surfaces have different surface structures.
(6)良好的耐磨性和抗疲劳性能
(6) Good wear resistance and fatigue resistance
注塑模型腔不仅受高压塑料熔体冲刷,而且还受冷热交变的温度应力作用。一般的高碳合金钢可经热处理获得高硬度,但韧性差,易形成表面裂纹,不宜采用。所选钢种应使注塑模能减少抛光修模的次数,能长期保持型腔的尺寸精度,达到批量生产的使用寿命期限。
Injection mold cavity is not only eroded by high-pressure plastic melt, but also affected by temperature stress of alternating heat and cold. General high carbon alloy steel can obtain high hardness by heat treatment, but its toughness is poor and surface cracks are easy to form, so it is not suitable to use. The selected steel should make the injection mould reduce the number of polishing and repairing, maintain the dimension accuracy of the cavity for a long time, and reach the service life of mass production.
今天的精彩内容由济南注塑模具厂家整理提供,欢迎大家收藏我们的官网:http://www.sdlqmj.com,我们会定期发布更多的行业前沿信息,希望对大家有所帮助!
Today's wonderful content is provided by Jinan Injection Mold Manufacturer. Welcome to our official website: http://www.sdlqmj.com. We will regularly publish more frontier industry information, hoping to help you!

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